The Arabic Papyrology Database

How to use LEXICON

LEXICON allows to directly access the lexicon being generated by all the texts that have already been entered into the APD. You will find compilations of lemmata (sg. lemma) including the different grammatical forms (lemma units) being realized in the texts. To access the actual passages of these lemma units it will just need another click.
You can search in the following categories – in combination or on its own.


Search here for one lemma or leave this field empty, if you want to search via different categories. Make sure you type in Latin characters (see Transcription). Your input is by default truncated at the end. To search for a lemma truncated at the beginning, add a %-sign. Please be aware of the fact that Hamza at the beginning of the word is written as ʾ, hamzat al-waṣl as ĭ or ŭ.


Type in the root in Latin characters without comma or space characters between the single characters, e.g. ktb or ḥfẓ.


The Roman numbers refer to the Western system of categorizing the verbal derivations. You will find the stems assigned to verbs, but also infinitves and participles.


Shape refers to the different morpheme types, e.g. fāʿil, mafʿūl or faʿʿāl. Your input is in Latin characters and not truncated at the end. If you want to look up a shape truncated, add a %-sign.

Word Categories

Have a look at the different word categories in Lemmata. Be aware of the fact that word categories are assigned functionally not formally, e.g. muḥammad in 3alà muḥammad:ini ăn-nabiyyi will not be assigned participle passive but noun, for the formal participle passive is used in a nominalized way. However, in al-ġurafu l-mabīʿatu, mabīʿ will be assigned participle passive.


Domain refers to the semantical field of the lemma (for the different categories have a look at Lemmata).

Words of foreign origin

In the second row, you are able to look for words of foreign origin, i.e. words that are realized in the text in Arabic, but go back to Greek, Coptic, Castilian etc. words. These words (mostly names) are listed here if they were explicitly stated by the editor of a document.